Kiwi Species

Photo credit Tae Eke

Kiwi

It is thought that around 70,000 Kiwi remain on the two islands of new Zealand. One might think that this was high, but it is estimated that there were around 12 million before humans arrived – so around 0.5% of the population survives. More importantly, this is after a great deal of work has been done by many grassroot groups, in order to shore up the population – it has been far lower in the past.

Furthermore, roughly 2% of the umanaged kiwi are lost each week (around 20 birds). When well protected, a kiwi can live 25-50 years.

 

Rowi Kiwi

The rarest species, there are only thought to be around 450 of this bird remaining (as of last full survey in 2015). It is found in Ōkārito forest and surrounds in South Westland, predator-free islands of Marlborough Sounds, this is one of 5 designated kiwi sanctuaries declared in 2000.

 

As you can see, Kiwi is not a species but a group of species. While different species have been known to breed where their range overlaps, saving each species is a separate task

Tokoeka Kiwi

Translating to Weka with a walking stick, this species

  • Haast tokoeka is Threatened – Nationally Vulnerable 400
  • Southern Fiordland is Threatened – Nationally Endangered
  • Northern Fiordland tokoeka is Threatened – Nationally Vulnerable
  • Rakiura tokoeka is At Risk – Naturally Uncommon

Stoats are the main threat, with the total population numbering around 13000

Great Spotted Kiwi

Current population 14,000, it is restricted to the upper parts of the south islands national parks – specifically Sub-alpine zones of North West Nelson, the Paparoa Range, and Arthur’s Pass. 

The largest species, it is thought to be declining by around 1.6% a year.

There are 4 genetically distinct populations Northwest Nelson, Westport, Paparoa Range and Arthur’sPass–Hurunui.

There are plans in place to save the species but time will tell if they prove successful. 

 

Little spotted Kiwi

With a population of 1670it is found on Kapiti island (1200 are found on Kapiti island, from 5 translocated to the island early in teh 20th century) and 10 other pest free areas.

They start feeding themselves and roaming alone at 5-7 days, though they will return to the nest for around 60.

Each population is either stable or growing, so the overall trend is up.

Brown Kiwi

Living in lowland and coastal native forest and subalpine areas in the North Island, there are around 26,000 of this species. Although the most numerous, the population is reducing around 2-3% each year. It is estimated that without a change it will be lost in 2 generations.

Having said this, they have a greater capacity to recover, as unlike other species, they usually produce 2 eggs each time they mate, and can produce 2 clutches a year.

There are 4 distinct subspecies which live in different areas and do not interbreed.

  • Northland brown kiwi 8000
  • Coromandel brown kiwi 1700
  • Western brown kiwi 8000
  • Eastern brown kiwi 8000

Main threats is from predation by dogs.

As always, we are keen to add links that will allow people to book to see these animals in the wild. If you work as a tour guide or similar, do get in touch – click on list your wild place on the home page.

Amazon River Dolphin

Amazon river dolphin by Oceancetaceen sometimes known as the Orinoco

Amazon Dolphin

The Amazon river dolphin, (other names include boto, bufeo or pink river dolphin), is a species of toothed whale endemic to South America and is classified in the family Iniidae. Three subspecies are currently recognized: Amazon river dolphin,, Bolivian river dolphin and the Orinoco river dolphin while position of Araguaian river dolphin  within the clade is still unclear The three subspecies are each found in a separate river basin (in order) the Amazon basin, the upper Madeira River in Bolivia, and the Orinoco basin.

The Amazon river dolphin is the largest species of river dolphin, with adult males reaching 185 kilograms (408 lb) in weight, and 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) in length. Adults acquire a pink colour, more prominent in males, giving it its nickname “pink river dolphin”. Sexual dimorphism is very evident, with males measuring 16% longer and weighing 55% more than females.

Like other toothed whales, they have a melon, an organ that is used for bio sonar. The dorsal fin, although short in height, is regarded as long, and the pectoral fins are also large. The fin size, unfused vertebrae, and its relative size allow for improved manoeuvrability when navigating flooded forests and capturing prey.

They have one of the widest ranging diets among toothed whales, and feed on up to 53 different species of fish, such as croakers, catfish, tetras and piranhas. They also consume other animals such as river turtles, aquatic frogs, and freshwater crabs. However, this is not particularly surprising, as there are so many forms of life in the Amazon rainforest, and plenty is likely to occasionally find themselves in the river.

In 2018, this species was classed as endangered, by the IUCN with a declining population. Threats include incidental catch in fishing lines, direct hunting for use as fish bait or predator control, damming, and pollution; as with many species, habitat loss and continued human development is becoming a greater threat.

While it is the only species of river dolphin kept in captivity, almost exclusively in Venezuela and Europe, it is difficult to train and often die very young, when kept in captivity..

Life expectancy of the Amazon river dolphin in the wild is unknown, but in captivity, the longevity of healthy individuals has been recorded at between 10 and 30 years. However, a 1986 study of the average longevity of this species in captivity in the United States is only 33 months. An individual named Baby at the  Duisburg Zoo, Germany, lived at least 46 years, spending 45 years, 9 months at the zoo.

Below you will find any news articles on Amazon dolphin (though articles with both words also get sucked in). Also  we will add any information on where you can go to see these in the wild, beneath both of these.

African Dwarf crocodile

African dwarf crocodile

The dwarf crocodile (also known as the African dwarf crocodile, broad-snouted crocodile -a name more often used for the Asian mugger crocodile) or bony crocodile), is an African crocodile that is also the smallest living species of crocodile.

Found in lowlands to mid-height areas, in small and mid-size streams (they avoid large rivers). Generally, they live in rivers that lie in rainforest, though they will venture into the open.

They are known, in places, to be found in pools deeply isolated in Savannah. In western Gabon, there are also a group which have been living long-term in caves. It is considered vulnerable by the IUCN and is Appendix i of CITES. Where they are declining, it appears largely as a result of deforestation and hunting for the bushmeat trade. As a result, while in some regions they have a healthy population, in others (like Gambia and Liberia) they are almost lost.

In zoos in the USA and Europe there are a few of this species, however, records are not good, and quite a few of them are clearly hybrids with little conservation use. I should note, a zoo I occasionally volunteer at (marwell zoo) had one of these crocodiles until last year when it went to another zoo for breeding.

We hope to be able to list places for you to visit to see this species as soon as possible. Any of these will appear below the video and the news section (this lists all the times that this species has been mentioned (if any) in this blog). Below this, we will list all the easiest places we have connections to, to see this species.

 

aaa Table mountain national park, South Africa

Table mountain national park, South Africa

While relatively small at only 85 square miles or 221 square kilometres, due to its proximity to Cape town it is one of the most visited national parks in South Africa.


A surprisingly large variety of wildlife is found there, given the size of the reserve. Apart from a sizable and growing colony of African penguins, there is also bontebok antelope, and a large population of baboons. Other species include rock dassies (hyrax), porcupines, mongoose, snakes, lizards, tortoise and a rare species called the table mountain ghost frog which is only found here. While once a big 5 reserve, only the leopard is ever present, and this is only an occasional visit by the roaming cape leopard. The current apex predator is the Caracal, which is a relatively small cat when compared to the Leopard.


Other than this the retrogresses and a handful of wild ostrich. During the meeting season between August and October it also can be a good place to watch southern right whales which come here to breed.

Lion

Photo credit Ross Couper

Lion

Altaileopard https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Altaileopard – Own work using: File:Lion_distribution.png Scientific source: Bertola, L. D., Jongbloed, H., Van Der Gaag, K. J., De Knijff, P., Yamaguchi, N., Hooghiemstra, H., … & Tende, T. (2016). Phylogeographic patterns in Africa and high resolution delineation of genetic clades in the lion (Panthera leo). Scientific Reports, 6, 30807.

Lions- often referred to as ‘The king of the jungle’ (odd as they are rarely found in the jungle) are usually one of the animals visitors want to see if not the main one.

They are very impressive and it is understandable why they are popular. No other predator dares lie out dozing in the open plains all day.

However over the last few decades, lion declines have been horrific, with declines of more than 2/3 since the 1960s.

Lion conservation is important, because to have a thriving lion population, you need a very large protected area, and an intact ecosystem- so all the other animals benefit. I have used a large variety of sources to compile this, but one study of great interest is “Lion conservation in West and Central Africa” by Hans Bauer, published in 2003. In 1996 the estimate for the lion population in Africa was thought to be between 30,000 and 100,000, however the IUCN African Lion Working Group suggested a more realistic number was 18,000-27,000. They also suggested, that of 38 reserves and parks across these regions that used to have lions, they are definitely lost from 23.

The Asiatic lion is different; Its only current home in Asia, is the Gir forests of western India. However, something that many people do not know is that the Asiatic lion population of Gir is a tiny relict of possibly the largest spread lion subspecies. The Asiatic lion still exists in Africa – the western and northern lion population are very closely related to the Asiatic lion and are thought to have last naturally interbred a few centuries ago. Importantly, they are still so genetically similar that they are not different sub species. This is important, as it means that only just over half of the Asiatic lions live in and around Gir, the rest live in Africa. I hope to add many more destinations over time. If you run safari lodge or camp or tours please do get in touch through the above link “list your wild place”. We are keen to list as many of the places to see wild lions as possible. 

It should be noted, that in historic times the Asiatic lion population spread as far as Spain, though the last ones were likely lost around the time of Jesus. Asiatic lions survived in the Caucuses for far longer, surviving until around the end of the first millennium (1000AD). Ecologically, the conditions of Southern and Eastern Europe have not changed much in the last millennium. However, until a significant change in human habitation, there is no space for lions to return to this area.

Current estimates suggest that at most there are 20,000 lions in Africa (Some suggest 20,000-25,000, though LionAid did a thorough assessment of the lions on the continent in 2020 and came up with just 9200). If this lower number is correct, then there is no longer more than 10,000 wild lions in the world. Having said that, below is the 5 largest populations, which are relatively well known, and these add up to above that number. Time will tell.

As keystone species, and apex predators, lions are incredibly important, as such it is a species that is followed closely on this website.  On each tab, you will find a list of articles about that species. Find below a list of articles on lions, below that is links to places we list where you can see lion. Please note, tab 2 and 3 refer to two separate populations of the Asiatic subspecies if only recently confirmed through genetic testing.

 

As you can see from the map above, the name African lion is not particularly accurate, given that half of Africa was inhabited by the Asian Lion. Still, even taking into account this number of African lions which belong to the Asiatic lion subspecies, still the population of African lion subspecies account for the majority of lions left in the world. It should be noted, that while Tanzania is still claiming a lion population of 14,000-15,000 Lionaid survey in 2020 claimed around 9600 in the world, so someone is definitely wrong. The image at the top of the page is an African Lion.

Over time, I hope that the destinations that we list on this site will grow fast, but for now we list the large lion ecosystems- hopefully with a few more coming soon

1. Kruger national park, and the greater Limpopo 2500                          

2. Serengeti and surrounding reserves 3000 

3. Kalahari Zambezi 1500 (though with the size of this

 reserve, there is space for much growth)

4. Selous (Nyerere national pakr 4000-5000 though as most of this vast reserve is set aside for hunting, much if it is unavailable to photographic safari (latest survey suggests 4300)

5. Ruaha national park (Tanzania) 4000

This accounts for around anything from 40% up to 64% (it is likely to be at the top end of this estimate as this includes the biggest lion populations of Africa) on the lions of african depending on which estimate you trust. Indeed, given Lionaids estinate, it accounts for as much as 167%.  We hope to add other populations in the coming years.

While it is undeniable that the lion populations in the East and South of the continent have reduced, there would have to have been a significant population in west and north of the continent as well. While, clearly, much of this space has been lost to human expansion, there is still much space for a great increase in this population, whether it ever gets a chance to grow is something we will have to wait and see.

Known as Panthera Leo Leo, the Asiatic Lion is more complicated than once thought. Historically found throughout North, West and Central Africa, Large parts of Asia as well as throughout Southern Europe. Different parts of this huge area have been lost at different times. Oddly despite this, it appeared to be officially forgotten for some time, so that only recently it was demonstrated genetically that the West African lion and the Central African lion are the subspecies as the Asiatic lion, and as such there ar

e actually more Asiatic lions in Africa. As such, the Asiatic lion is split into 3 clades. Which will be handled separately.

So here, the west African Lion clade:

1. W-Arly-Pendjari Transfrontier park was estimated to hold 250-500 members (it should be noted that it is likely close the botto at the current time)

2. Senegal’s Niokolo-Koba national park formerly a stronghold, the number of lions as low as 30 at the moment (down from as high as as 120 in 1996)

3. Waza national park, Cameroon is was thought to host 14-21 lions in 2010, I  dont know what has happened since

4. Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria is thought to host around 30, while Yankara may only have 5 left.       

5. Bénoué ecosystem: (Faro, Bénoué and Bouba-Ndjidda national parks as well as 32 hunting areas, covering 30,000 square km) contains 250 lions 

Are these over-estimates? A significant number of sources claim just 250 in the world, though others suggest around 400. Having said that, should we assume the minimum population for the WAP complex and Benoue estimate being accurate (studies are recent and thorough) this gets us to to over 400 already. 

 

What is unfortunate though is the populations in the other 3 reserves. 

Having said that, back around 1900 there was only an estimated 20 lions left in India, so a similar recovery could give each of these reserves a 400 population in 50 or so years. I would estimate given the reliability of these numbers that at the time of the study in 2020 the total population numbered around 800. though even half of this would be enough for a recovery over a relatively short term.

The western and the central lion population was (relatively recently) far larger. 1900 it is thought that there may have been as many as 200,000. Even as recently as 1970 there were thought to have been 90,000.

Unfortunately, at the current time, I have no links in these place – but would love to, please get in touch if you work in one of these reserves, we would love to help people find you.

 

Known as Panthera Leo Leo, the Asiatic Lion is more complicated than once thought. Historically found throughout North, West and Central Africa, Large parts of Asia as well as throughout Southern Europe. Different parts of this huge area have been lost at different times. Oddly despite this, it appeared to be officially forgotten for some time, so that only recently it was demonstrated genetically that the West African lion and the Central African lion are the subspecies as the Asiatic lion, and as such there are actually more Asiatic lions in Africa. As such, the Asiatic lion is split into 3 clades. Which will be handled separately.

So the central African lion is thought to have a population of around 2200 (as of 2015-2016): I have not been able to calculate a proper number for this, I hope to have more information in the future.

 

Asiatic lion from the Gir fores

Known as Panthera Leo Leo, the Asiatic Lion is more complicated than once thought. Historically found throughout North, West and Central Africa, Large parts of Asia as well as throughout Southern Europe. Different parts of this huge area have been lost at different times. Oddly despite this, it appeared to be officially forgotten for some time, so that only recently it was demonstrated genetically that the West African lion and the Central African lion are the subspecies as the Asiatic lion, and as such there are actually more Asiatic lions in Africa. As such, the Asiatic lion is split into 3 clades. Which will be handled separately.

So the North African and Asiatic clade: The north African lion, otherwise known as the Barbary lion, was lost some time ago (the last one was shot in 1942). However, there has been much discussion about reintroducing them to Morocco, for some time. It could well be done in the near future. 

The rest of this clade (remembering that the West and Central African lions are the same subspecies as this) are found in the Gir forests of India. This population is thought to be as high as 600, though deaths have been particularly high for a significant period of time. This population only currently has one protected home, from which the lions are overflowing- the Gir forest. The forest is home to as many as 600 lions, though only covering 1400 square km (545 miles) the best reserves in Africa have roughly 1 lion per every 5 square miles. Many of these lions live outside, with as many as 200 having made their home by the sea, a great distance form the park.

 

Scientists have long argued that some of the lions should be moved to another reserve as having all of them in one place leaves the entire clade vulnerable to natural disasters or indeed an epidemic. Indeed, it has gone all the way to the high court in India, but the Chief minister of Gujarat has simply refused to enforce the order (he does not want to loose the status of housing the only wild Asiatic lion (at least the Asiatic clade). There was much effort to give the Indian lions a second home, but the government saw them as their property and refused to allow any to be moved. The proposed home was set up for them – the Kuno reserve, with a number of villages moved to accommodate them. The Gujarat government has suggested all sorts of reasons to refuse, including that the reserve is unacceptable – despite being almost identical to Gir.

Kuno is now the home of the cheetah reintroduction (not that this should rule it out, as they lived alongside each other in the past, and from where they have been moved). Never-the-less, Gujurat has refused to budge even having lost the case in the supreme court.

 

It seems absurd that something this important can be held up because of politics but there we are. There are plans to move 40 lions to Barda wildlife sanctuary, which would at least give a second home. However, given the Asiatic Lions historical range covering such a vast area, the idea that one state in India could block translocations to anywhere else is quite scary. 

Never-the less, it is still a fascinating place to visit.

 

Limpopo Transfrontier park including Kruger sabi sands and other conservation areas
Greater Serengeti

African Savannah

African Savannah animals

The aim here is not to give you the number of every species that exists in each reserve. Rather, the aim is to give you a rough idea of the health and size of each reserve. In places where there are private reserves on the edge of a larger reserve, complete ecosystem numbers will be given. Please note that they will not be precise, as even straight after a thorough count numbers are only estimates – furthermore, some reserves do not publicize their numbers.

The grid of animals that I have included above are as follows (below):

African wild dog Black rhino White rhino(Really wide rhino) Elephant Buffalo Giraffe Zebra Cheetah Hippopotamus Lion Hyena Leopard

This is going to be the standard animals for Savannah ecosystems within Africa, however each different Biome will have different species so there will be a variety of these pages. I will give you brief information on each. In the long-run we hope to have animal pages for each and these will be linked from the Bold animal names. Those not bold not not yet have a link page. At the bottom of each animals page is a list of places which you can book to see the animal in question; each currently have at least a few choices, but I hope to be able to direct to many more as time moves forwards.

African wild dog (or sometimes known as Cape hunting dog or painted dog). This animal is an incredible sighting if you get lucky. Now, they live at low densities, so are generally found in the largest reserves. If a reserve still has African wild dog, it is clear that the reserve is in pretty good health (usually). Furthermore, as they are very susceptible to various diseases that domestic dogs can carry (such as canine distemper) – this wiped out the population in the Serengeti in 1995. Thankfully, wild dogs have returned to the Serengeti, though currently only 100 or so are in the ecosystem – meaning it is unlikely that you will see them here. Any sighting is a wonderful thing. Member of ecotourism big 7

Black and White Rhino Two different species, Black rhino had a far larger range, unfortunately they are highly endangered across most of their range. White rhino, once found in central Africa (there are now only 2 of these animals left, held at Ol Pejeta conservancy in Kenya) are now only found in Southern Africa – South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe. The Kruger, once hosted as much as 10,000 or more white rhino, but now only have about 3000. Note: white rhino appears to be a mistranslation from the Africaans Weit, meaning wide, these rhino are not white. Pictures are Black then white rhino. Member of big 5 and ecotourism big 7

Elephant One of the species that so many people visit Africa for, the Savannah African elephant is doing okay, though the populations is far below historical levels. Places like the Selous (now much of this reserve is Nyerere National park) lost perhaps 80% of there historical elephant population. Encouragingly, if the poaching stops the population often rapidly recovers. The African forest elephant has seen horrific poaching over the last few decades, and without a rapid change this species might be heading for extinction (the African forest elephant is closer related to the Mammoth than the African Savannah elephant. Member of the big 5 and ecotourism big7.

Buffalo: A member of the big 5, the buffalo is essentially a wild cattle species. They are a member of the big 5 and ecotourism big 7. The big 5 is so named because these were the most dangerous animals to hunt on foot. Buffalo are often the species which you are likely to have encounters with if you go walking on foot.

Lion Often referred to as the King of the Jungle (despite not being found in jungles), is generally considered the apex predator. Certainly a wonderful thing to see, never-the-less they do not get their own way all the time. The population of Lions in Africa has seen precipice falls in the last century, and this has not stopped. Tourism is one tool we have to give them financial value to those who share their space with them. Member of the big 5 and ecotourism big 7

Giraffe: While this is a species that is found in the majority of Southern and Eastern African reserves, they are officially classed as endangered, as their population is currently falling so fast. The selous in Tanzania is nicknamed the Griraffe park as there are so many of them.

Zebra are also found in most reserves in Africa, though the number of them is still of interest.

Cheetah Like African Wild dog are a key indicator of the health of the ecosystem. Living at low densities in most reserves (except in places like the Serengeti plains). These are rare sightings, and most reserves do not have many cheetah. Indeed of all the big species, the cheetah is one of the few predators who do better outside reserves.

Hippopotamus: This is another species that does reasonably well outside protected reserves, but their population has fallen fast over the last few years.

Lion Lions are a very clear indication of the health of each ecosystem. If there is a significant population of Lion, then it is a large reserve and therefore there is plenty of space for other species. Check our links at the bottom of the lion page for some of the best place to see them.

Hyena There are thought to be more than 100,000 spotted hyena in Africa, making them the most numerous predator on the continent. They are exciting animals to see, and their call is often one of the species that you hear from your campsite – the weird rising whoop which is the contact call they use between them. Watch the video below to see what I mean. The advantage of the population size is that you are likely to find them in most wilderness areas. Brown hyenas are also widely found, never the less, as they do not do well in close proximity to spotted hyenas which means they are more often found on the edge of reserves and outside them.

Leopard The last member of the big 5 and Ecotourism big 7, the Leopard is a fascinating species. A solitary animal (except mothers with their young) they are the only big cat, or indeed member of the big 5 that is reguarly found outside protected reserves, though this is decreasing over time. A fantastic sighting, they can be very hard to find, and sightings in big reserves are usually very crowded. Generally found near river courses, as these are the places where large trees are found, allowing the Leopard to rest out of danger.

Wolf

An Iberian wolf out alone

Wolf

The wolf is a species that is often on the top of the list of animals that people would like to see in the wild before they die. It is truly a wonderful thing to see.

I have been lucky enough to see them twice, once from a bear hide in Sweden (look at the hide list, this one is the only currently available) as well as also seeing an Iberian wolf briefly, as well as hearing them in the distance.

There is something magical about being in an ecosystem where you are not the only dangerous animal. Wolves are not dangerous in the same way as the big 5 from Africa. Even spending years in the field, you are unlikely to actually to get close to a wolf, and if you do, more often than anything it will run. For much of Europe, humans are having to get used to living alongside them, having destroyed the population in the last few hundred years. But they are essential for a balanced ecosystem – i certainly hope that eventually they will return to this country.

As many as 38 subspecies are listed, and as we make contacts for people to see the wolves, we will add more subspecies. Some examples include the Eurasian wolf, the Indian wolf, the Iberian wolf and even the domestic dog. However, it was found that many of these interbred along their boundary suggesting they are more of a clade than a subspecies. As such, below i have split the wolf species into 2 groups, old and new world wolves. Each will have a page, thought these will remain relatively sparse until we start adding links for where you can see them. I should add (once again) that this is a page for subspecies of the grey wolf. Any closely related wolf like the Alonquin wolf (eastern wolf) or the red wolf have pages of their own, as they have been granted separate species status (as opposed to separate subspecies, which will be listed on this page)

There is a great thirst in our increasingly artificial lives, for people to experience the wild. It is true that many do this on safari in Africa, or on a whale watching trip, but the interest in seeing wolves in their native environment only grows as time goes by.

The wolf is an apex predator. By hunting in packs, they are able to take down much larger prey than they would be alone, though a number of different subspecies have given up this advantage to be able to survive in places where large prey is not available. Subspecies like the African wolf subsist on rats and birds and rabbits and species of similar size. They are incredibly intelligent (when trekking in the Romania mountains we saw the sign of recent visits by the wolves, in order to plan their attack on the vast sheep flocks which would be herded through this narrow valley, several months later) and can plan a significant distance into the future. The Ethiopian wolf (a species that is not a subspecies of the grey wolf, but closely related) hunts in a very similar way, but not being a subspecies of the grey wolf will not appear on this page (it has its own page, accessible from the wild dog page or click here). The domestic dog is a subspecies. The African wild dog, is a relation of the wolf, but is not a subspecies. It is thought that it last shared an ancestor with the wolf around 2 million years ago.

 

Below is an image of a range of  old world wolf subspecies. Each one will have a page devoted to it, and over time, we hope to list places to see each one in the wild. We rely on people who live alongside these animals to list places that people can see them (the whole purpose of this website is to create a wildlife travel marketplace, if you live somewhere wild, list it and make money while showing the world the amazing wildlife on your doorstep (if it is not a wolf, find your species – we wish long term to cater for all)

Old world grey wolf subspecies – Europe Asia Africa (note- the name of each has wolf after it – Iberian wolf etc. This does not apply to the last two). Below is a map of the rough range of the old world species

The Iberian wolf is a subspecies of the grey wolf found on the Iberian peninsular. It reached its minimum in the 1970s with 500-700 iindividuals living in the wild. Until the middle of the 19th century, it was widespread, throughout the Iberian peninsular. It should be noted, that wolves have never had high densities, and the wolves of western Europe are not thought to have ever had a population much above 848–26 774 (depending on which end of the estimate you rely – but is the founding population of both the Iberian and Apennine population).

They have been gradually spreading from their 1970s holdout – in a hunting reserve called the Sierra de Culebra which is a hunting reserve straddling the North eastern border of Portugal, and across the border in Spain. This reserve is fascinating, and may well be a good way to support wolves in other areas. There is significant belief that the wolf populations in Southern Spain is extinct, however, should the recovery of the Iberian wolf is allowed to continue, I could well see wolves re-settling these areas within the next couple of decades

They have in recent years, started to meet with Apennine wolves, who re-entered France back in 1991-1992, and settled in the  Pyrenees. The small pockets of wolves in Southern Spain are isolated and are certainly threatened long-term. The Iberian wolf had its last survey in 2021, and at that time the number of wolves was estimated at 2000-2500. It should be noted that in 2021 wolf hunting was banned in Spain – between 2008 and 2013, 623 Iberian wolves were hunted legally, and I think that it is fantastic that this has been banned. Having said that, it means that the wolf hunting number was around 5% of the wolves in the country each year. This is at a level which should allow the population to grow over time.

These wolves are fascinating to see in the wild (I have seen them and heard them), and the best way to make sure that they say in the wild is to go see them. They are fantastic for ecosystems, and are very exciting to see in the wild. As we add destinations, they will appear below.

The Apennine wolf is also known as the Italian wolf. Back in the 1970s the population reached its minimum, where the population reached 70-100 individuals. It has recovered well since then, with an Italian population of roughly 3300. However, since the early 1990s, this subspecies has been gradually moving into France. As such, at the end of 2022 the number was estimated at 1104 wolves in France.

The Italian wolf is considered the national animal of the country (at least by some) and features heavily in writings from across the history of the country (going back as far as the Roman empire). It was listed as a subspecies back in 1921, and the range almost exactly 100 years ago in 2019 is shown to the right. It should be noted, that wolf range is likely to have increased significantly in the 5 years that have run since this map was created.

The genetics of this subspecies suggests that it went through a genetic bottleneck in the last 20,000 or so year, and it is thought wolves were isolated south of the alps, and unable to exchange DNA with any other group of wolves. Now they have been able to move beyond the alps, this isolation appears to be over, and there are already couples breeding, which will improve the health of each population as a whole.  Keep an eye on the news box below which will list articles on this subspecies.

The Apennine wolf is found throughout  much of Italy, and an increasingly large parts of France, as well as even sections in Spain in the Pyrenees. There is much wilderness across its range, and as such there is likely space for a far larger population. It is also worth noting, that the deer population across Italy and France is higher than it has been for some time, and as such a recovered wolf population is likely to control these at more natural levels.

Never-the-less, there is much tourism in all of the range of the Apennine wolf. Any places that we have listed to see this wolf subspecies will appear below.

The Eurasian wolf (often referred to as the Russian wolf), is the subspecies which runs down the east coast of the Adriatic sea, as well as the majority of Russia and northern Europe. 

 It ranges through Scandinavia, the Caucasus, Russia, China, and Mongolia. Its habitat overlaps with the Indian wolf in some regions of Türkiye.

In South eastern Europe it is found in much of the countries in which it lives, but not throughout the area (its distribution is patchy, but relatively easy to move between areas where they are found). The numbers are thought to be roughly 3900 throughout this area.

Its Scandinavian population is not large, but it is thought to still be connected with its Russian population so there is no worry about genetic bottlenecks. Norway and Sweden are thought to have a population of around 450 in total. Around 80% of these are in Sweden, though this is by choice- despite the large area of Norway, they state than 95% of the country should remain wolf free, and the remaining area can only support 3 breeding pairs. This is not scientific but political and as such takes intensive culling each year. Finland has a current population of 300 which is the highest for a century, though modelling suggests a population under 500 is unlikely to remain healthy for long; though given the proximity of Finland to Russia, wolves are able to regularly interbreed across the border.

The Russian wolf population is the largest, and accounts for most of Russia’s wolves. The population was estimated at 40,000. They are hunted, but at the current time, their population appears to be pretty stable.

The Chinese population is 10,000-12,000, while Mongolia has 10,000-20,000

Although, the only subspecies to take the name Russian, Russia hosts a range of wolf subspecies. Also known as the Northern Asian subspecies. I have not found much information on this subspecies, but hope to add more soon as it becomes available.

In places like reserves, these wolves are seen relatively regularly. The reserve we visited a bear hide, has a permanent person looking after it, and he claimed he saw wolves about once a week. While this sub-species does not have a population growing particlarly fast, it is also not shrinking fast either.

We will aim to list places to see them below. Do get in touch if you have somewhere that you do see these wolves regularly, and would like to list your destination. Letting other people pay to see the wildlife that you see all the time, can help reward their ongoing survival as well as bringing in some money which can help you .

The Tundra wolf – Canis lupus Albus is the Eurasian equivalent of the Arctic wolf. Also known as the Turukhan wolf, it is native to Eurasia’s tundra and forest-tundra zones from Finland to the Kamchatka Peninsula. It was first described in 1792 by Robert Kerr.

The tundra wolf generally rests in river valleys, thickets and forest clearings. In winter it generally feeds on female or young wild and domestic reindeer, though smaller animals like hares, arctic foxes and other animals are sometimes taken. A survey of stomach contents of 74 wolves caught around Nenets Autonomous Okrug in the 1950s were found to consist of 93.1% reindeer remains. In the summer period, tundra wolves feed extensively on birds and small rodents, as well as newborn reindeer calves.

They are classed as least concern, and as can be seen, have a large range. There is no estimate of their numbers, but it is likely to be one of the more numerous in the world. (if anyone has further information do let me know). As yet, I have not written about the Tundra wolf – it is not easy to find information on it. However, as blogposts are written on this subspecies, they will appear below. It should be noted that when you look up Arctic or Tundra wolf, a number of webpages quote figures of 200,000

 

Indian wolf

The Indian wolf is one of the more well known, partly as their starring role in the Jungle book by Rudyard Kipling. I do remember my great grandmother talking about seeing 4 wolves running in the distance. It is thought to have 2000-3000 individuals left in the wild, though given its former large range, this does not appear very high. It should not be surprising, therefore, to hear that this is considered as one of the most endangered subspecies of the grey wolf – it officially has the conservation status of endangered – now it is considered endangered, and people talk about it at high risk, but it should be remembered that there are still 2000-3000, which is a pretty high number for a species considered more than just endangered.

It is found in arid and semi-arid peninsular plains of India, though from the distribution map to the right, you can see that much of its range is found outside India. The Indian wolf lives in smaller packs of 6-8. It has a reputation for cunning, and makes far less noises than other wolves, having very rarely been known to howl. As you can see from the map to the right, although called the Indian wolf, its range stretches far beyond the borders of India

It was described in 1831.

 

Also the most recently confirm subspecies of the wolf – the African wolf. The move onto the African continent has required a number of changes in behaviour, which makes it easily confused with Jackels, but the African wolf is indeed a wolf. It split from the wolf/coyote ancestor just over a million years ago. Previously, it was considered a subspecies of the Golden Jackal.

There are two genetically distinct populations, one in North-West Africa and the other in East Africa. It appears to be roughly 72% genetically grey wolf, with the rest coming from the Ethiopian wolf (while the Ethiopian wolf is considered a separate species, it is a closely related Canid).

It was only reidentified (having been originally identified in 1820) in 2015, so there is still much to be done, both in identifying size of population and variations of he population across Africa. Given the huge area that they are found in, it seems quite reasonable that there will be further splitting of the African wolf into separate subspecies (or merely populations, though given the huge distances between them we will have to wait and see) but we will find this out in time.

 

There has been little study of this species, and it is unclear exactly how much range that it has. Hopefully, this will happen in time, but it is clear that the big problem is telling the difference between golden jackals and golden wolves. 

 

 

African wolf range

There are a number of subspecies of the African wolf (quite quick, given it was not redeclared as a species 6 years ago. They are classed as a least concern. While not all sub-species have a clear estimate of the current population, genetic analysis suggests that the historic population was not smaller than 80,000 females.

 

  • Algerian wolf – range Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia -A dark-coloured subspecies, with a tail marked with three dusky rings. It is similar in size to the red fox
  • Senegalese wolf – Senegal – Similar to the Egyptian wolf, but smaller and more lightly built, with paler fur and a sharper muzzle.
  • Serengeti wolf – Kenya, northern Tanzania – Smaller and lighter-coloured than the northern forms. The wild population is 1500-2000
  • Egyptian wolf – Egypt, Algeria, Mali, Ethiopian Highlands, and Senegal – A large, stoutly built subspecies with proportionately short ears and presenting a very gray wolf-like phenotype, standing 40.6 cm in shoulder height and 127 cm in body length. The upper parts are yellowish-gray tinged with black, while the muzzle, the ears and the outer surfaces of the limbs are reddish-yellow. The fur around the mouth is white.
  • Somali wolf – Somalia and the coast of Ethiopia and Eritrea – A dwarf subspecies measuring only 12 inches in shoulder height, it is generally of a grayish-yellow color, mingled with only a small proportion of black. The muzzle and legs are more decidedly yellow, and the underparts are white.
  • Variegated wolf – Sudan and Somalia – A small subspecies standing 38 cm (15 in) at the shoulder, and measuring 102 cm (40 in) in length. The fur is generally pale stone-buff, with blotches of black.
Steppe wolf or caspian sea wolf user Mariomassone Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported

The Steppe wolf also known as the Caspian sea wolf is a wolf subspecies that is found in the region around the Caspian sea, though the Steppe wolf is perhaps more useful a name as it extends far from the Caspian sea. Much of its range is in Kazakhstan as the working figure is 30,000 individuals, however, the survey which produced this number was completed in 2007, and given the lack of any protection and the widespread enjoyment, got from hunting wolves, it seems highly unlikely that the current population is anywhere near that size. 

As you can see from the map, its range is largely split between Kazakhstan and and teh western end of russia.

The Arabian wolf is found sporadically around the edge of the Arabian peninsular, with a total population of 1000-3000. The Arabian wolf was once found throughout the Arabian Peninsula, but now lives only in small pockets in 

  • Southern Israel: 100-150 live over the Negev and the Ha’arava. While harassing or killing wolves is prohibited, there is no compensation for livestock losses, meaning retaliation kills are more likely (80-100 Indian wolves are also found in the north of the country – Carmel, Galilee, and Golan Heights)
  • Palestine: possibly merely sharing the population numbers above (few surveys due to issue with getting in there). Both Arabian and Indian wolves are present.
  • Southern and western Kuwait: A significant amount of illegal killing, and having gone on for some time. It is thought that it is locally extinct, though with its continued presence in surrounding countries, it could return on its own.
  • Oman- wolves still exist in parts of the country, including the valley of the wolves (video below this text box). While surveys are rare, an Oryx survey between 1991 and 1997 encountered wolves on 17 occasions. Hunting was banned in recent years, and the wolf has increased since then. There is hope that the wolf will fully recover without help.
  • Yemen
  • Syria: the wolf is unprotected, and while there are no recent surveys, it is thought that around 200 wolves survive (no compensation is paid for lost of livestock).
  • Lebenon has around 50 wolves, though they have no legal protection and there is no livestock damage compensation
  • Jordan has 200 wolves, though little or nothing is known about them, including whether the population is growing or shrinking.
  • Saudi Arabia: hosting between 300 and 600  wolves, there is no protection and no livestock damage compensation
  • Parts of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt are thought to host small numbers of wolves
  • UAE the wolf is currently listed as extinct
 Bahrain and other countries in the region are not thought to have wolves at the current time. Having said this, the range of the Arabian wolf is not large and in other places wolves have dispersd thousands of miles, so it is essential that the other countries in the area and set up to allow wolves to return if this happens.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

There is wolf tourism in a variety of places across the middle east, but merely expressing interest in them could well show locals their potential value.

Should you live in an Arabian wolf range area and would like to be able to show visitors these fascinating animals (and get paid for the privilege, do get in touch, we are eager to work with people on the ground. Below is a list of any articles from the website that mention this species, below that is a video of this species in the wild.

The range of the Himalayan wolf is shown in pink

The Himalayan wolf (scientifically known as Canis lupus chanco) is a member of the dog family, whose position is debated. Its genes show it is  genetically basal to the Holarctic grey wolf, genetically the same wolf as the Tibetan and Mongolian wolf, and has an association with the African wolf (Canis lupaster). No striking morphological differences are seen between the wolves from the Himalayas and those from Tibet. The Himalayan wolf lineage can be found living in Ladakh in the Himalayas, the Tibetan Plateau, and the mountains of Central Asia predominantly above 4,000m  in elevation because it has adapted to a low-oxygen environment, compared with other wolves that are found only at lower elevations.

Some experts have suggested that this subspecies is so different to other wolves, that it should be listed as a separate species. In 2019, a workshop hosted by the IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group noted that the Himalayan wolf’s distribution included the Himalayan range and the Tibetan Plateau. The group recommends that this wolf lineage be known as the “Himalayan wolf” and be classified as Canis lupus chanco until a genetic analysis of the holotypes is available. The Himalayan wolf lacks a proper morphological analysis. The wolves in India and Nepal are listed on CITES Appendix I as endangered due to international trade.

The Himalayan wolf is found in the Himalayan region encompassing India, Nepal and the Tibetan Plateau of Western China. The IUCN report noted that only 2,275 to 3,792 individuals of the Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) are left in the wild.

 The Mongolian wolf (Canis lupus chanco) is not restricted to just Mongolia, but is found in a range of countries in the area as well (see the map to the right for more information). For reference, the blue is the Mongolian wolf range, while the pink is the Himalayan wolf range.

Generally, there is little fear of the Mongolian wolf, and while they do occasionally take livestock they are not persecuted. There is a harvesting of wolf pelts but this is currently done at a sustainable level.

They are considered endangered; they are classed as endangered, with a Mongolian population of 10,000-20,000. I have been unable to identify an overall number for the population.

The new guinea singing dog (also known as the New Guinea highland dog, it is restricted to the highlands of New Guinea. There are a number of different possible names, and places where it fits into the dog family as its taxonomic status is debated, with proposals that include treating it within the species concept (range of variation) of the domestic dog Canis familiaris, a distinct species Canis hallstromi, and Canis lupus dingo when considered a subspecies of the wolf.

Rare amongst canines, it is incapable of barking, instead making an odd yodelling sound, which gives rise to its name.

 

Genetic analysis suggests that this subspecies is descended from multiple different wolf subspecies. However, it is still debated, though an IUCN workshop in 2019 came to the conclusion that both the singing dogs and the dingo to be populations of the domestic dog, and therefore not needing of protection, or needing to be listed on the IUCN red list.

Oddly, this species was thought to have gone extinct in the wild in 1970 and it was only in 2020 that several wild dogs were genetically tested and found to be this species. Still surviving in captivity, it was a big shock to find them living at heights of over 4km high.

The IUCN will not list them, as it considers them a domestic dog breed, but if this is the case, they are still of interest as they appear frozen in time – a so called “proto domestic dog”. There are around 100 animals in zoos and as domestic exotic pets, but these all originate from around 8 wild members, which means that there is little genetic diversity – leading to possible infertility.

In 2012, a tourist took a photo of an animal which looked suspiciously like the singing dog – taken in a remote mountainous area of New Guinea. When the photo found its way to a certain person, who had been running a program to find it since 1996. McIntyre, the leader of this project, launched a trip to the area and set up many camera traps. Oddly, while some tracks were found, no animals were seen until the last day when a whole pack walked in front of one of the camera traps. While they looked exactly as required, recognizing it would take more than photos to resurrect the singing dog from the dead, he mounted a second trip to the area and set out traps – he caught 2 males, and after taking blood and attaching tracking collars he released them.

After testing against captive singing dogs, it was found to have come from a fully diverse group of wild singing dogs. Some other researchers did suggest that no-one believed these animals to be dead (having found scat on a trip) but there we are.

Might this species be alive and thriving in remote parts of New Guinea? I will hope to write on it in the future – do get in touch if you have information on this fascinating species.

Closely related to the new Guinea singing dog, the Dingo is a dog species that has a relatively wide range. There is some debate about how it got to some of its homes, and whether it may have come alongside early humans.

The earliest remains of Dingoes in Australia are dated to almost 3500 years ago, While they are now quite happy living alone or alongside humans, it seems that this may be the descendant of early domestic dogs. Interestingly, both genetically and in body shape, these dogs do not appear to have changed much in the 3450 years that they are known to have been in Australia, suggesting a high level of self determination in choice of mate, as opposed to what might have happened with human lead selective breeding. It should be noted that it is thought it arrived far earlier than these earliest remains, with studies suggsting that a sensible arrival date was around 8300 years ago

Given that they have now been on the continent for likely well over 3000 years, it is quite likely that they have done whatever damage that their arrival might cause, and so they are to all intents and purposes a native Australian species.

There is not a particularly strong estimate in the number of Dingoes currently living wild, but it is thought to be between 10,000 and 50,000. Recent genetic studies have shown that over half of the dingoes are pure dingo, with no dog ancestry – putting paid to some attempts to suggest that they are little more than feral dogs, which would make their culling far easier to agree to.

Fraser island, off the coast of Queensland is one of the best places to see the dingo, though there are plenty of other places to head. We hope to add many in the near future, do help us get there.

New world wolf subspecies- until recently, as many as 38 wolf subspecies were recognized in North America. The current agreement is that there is just 4-6 (it should be noted that while it has been a debate for over a century, the current agreement is that the red wolf is a separate species and not a subspecies of the grey wolf). 

Wolves in the USA have been heavily persecuted since Europeans arrived on the continent, and as such in 1967 when they reached their minimum, there were only around 1550 individuals left. The map below shows where they still range.

Thankfully, given that most wolf subspecies has range outside the USA, we still have all of these subspecies (though the health of their population varies from subspecies to subspecies – we will cover this below in each one in turn.

The Trump administration gave the handling of the wolf population over to the states. While some took this responsibility seriously, others allowed the wolf to be all but exterminated once again.

This listing includes 5 of these subspecies, I may add or remove one as further evidence is found.

It should be noted that this image shows the layout of the wolf subspecies in north America, it does not show their current range. I have included a link to our red wolf page, it should be noted that the red wolf is not a subspecies of the grey wolf, it is a separate species which appears to be a hybrid between wolves and coyotes but split from grey wolves long in the past

Scientifically known as Canis lupus Arctus, some question the Arctic wolf classification as a subspecies, and it is certainly clear that it is only recently that wolves moved up from North America. Recent researchers have found that the Arctic wolves have no unique haplotypes (group of unique genes inherited from one parent) and that as such, they do not warrant the subspecies status, and are actually just north American wolves.

One thing to note, is that they are listed as data deficient in terms of population size, though even so, it is listed as least concern – having said this, there are clear threats. In 1997, there was a decline in the Arctic wolf population and its prey, muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and Arctic hares (Lepus arcticus). This was due to unfavourable weather conditions during the summers for four years. Arctic wolf populations recovered the next summer when weather conditions returned to normal. It is unclear where the information came from, but a very large number of websites list this animal as having a population of around 200,000 individuals. Given the global population of wolves is only thought to be around 200,000-250,000, there is no way that the Arctic population can be anywhere near this number. A reduction in the number of Musk ox, in recent years did also cause a decline in the Arctic wolf population. 

Although quite rightly considered apex predators, polar bears will on occasion hunt arctic wolves.

While listed as least concern, they are only relatively common in Alaska where there is plenty of food. Elsewhere they are very rare. Below will show a list of any articles written on this subject. If there is anyone who is interested in writing about this species (a researcher or similar) we would be fascinated to hear, while I will endeavour to write, I have found that there is little information on this highly specialized wolf subspecies.

Click here to watch a program on this subspecies called “Following the Tundra wolf”. Unfortunately certain names are used interchangeably – here they are not talking about the Tundra wolf, but the Arctic wolf, confusingly sometimes known as the tundra wolf

Mexican wolves (scientific name is Canis lupus baileyi) are currently only found in a small area as seen on the map to the right. It is a fantastic improvement on the situation around 1970 when the species was extinct in the wild. The first reintroduction was carried out in 1998. Unfortunately, founded by just 7 individuals, the population is highly inbred. Never-the-less, currently, the USA has 257 wild Mexican wolves, while 57 live across the border in Mexico, up from just 11 that were reintroduced into the wild. A further 380 are in captivity. 

As always with small populations, hybridization is a big threat. Both coyotes and other wolf subspecies can interbreed, and overlap territory in places.

If you visit an area where these wolves live, paying to do some wolf watching is the best way to support this subspecies long-term survival. If you have anything that will help with this, do click on list your wild place at the top of the page, so we can help people find you.

Tourism is one of the easiest ways to fund conservation projects, and while this species is currently not in danger, it certainly needs help to come back from its near extinction. 314 is a great population when compared to zero, but it is also a terrible one compared to the population that might exist werein not for human persecution.

The Great Plains wolf (scientific name is Canis lupus nubilus), alternatively known as the buffalo wolf or loafer, is a subspecies of gray wolf that once extended throughout the Great Plains, from southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada southward to northern Texas in the United States. The subspecies was thought to be extinct in 1926, until studies declared that its descendants were found in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. They were described as a large, light-colored wolf but with black and white varying between individual wolves, with some all white or all black. The Native Americans of North Dakota told of how only three Great Plains wolves could bring down any sized bison. 

First, described in 1828, it was thought to have been hunted to extinction in 1926, until studies declared that its descendants were found in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. However, later studies found wolves in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Upper Michigan that were descendants of Canis lupus nubilus. Even then, their number became fewer and fewer until they were federally protected as an endangered species in 1974 (this is the same as all wolves living in the USA). Since then, their population became larger in the Great Lakes region and by 2009, their estimate grew to 2,992 wolves in Minnesota, 580 in Michigan and 626 in Wisconsin. Given the USA has a wolf popluation of 14,000-18000, a population of 4000 great plains wolves is actually significant (and more than 10 times the total population of the Mexican wolf).

Provided there is not a non-scientific return to hunting in the USA, it seems likely that they are safe for the future.

The North-western wolf (scientific name is Canis lupus occidentalis), is also known as the Mackenzie Valley wolf, Alaskan timber wolf,  Canadian timber wolf or the Northern timber wolf. Arguably the largest gray wolf subspecies in the world, it ranges from Alaska, the upper Mackenzie River Valley; southward throughout the western Canadian provinces, aside from prairie landscapes in its southern portions, as well as the North-western United States. The subspecies was first described in 1829 by Scottish naturalist Sir John Richardson. He chose to give it the name occidentalis in reference to its geographic location rather than label it by its color, as it was too variable so a colour referencing name would apply to not many of the wolves in question.

According to one source, phylogenetic analyses of North American gray wolves show that there are three clades corresponding to north-western wolf, Mexican and great plains, each one representing a separate invasion into North America from distinct Eurasian ancestors. The north-western wolf, the most north-western subspecies, is descended from the last gray wolves to colonize North America. It likely crossed into North America through the Bering land bridge after the last ice age, displacing great plains wolf populations as it advanced, a process which has continued until present times. Along with great plains wolves, north-western wolves are the most widespread member of the four gray wolf subspecies in North America, with at least six different names that it goes by (I named 3 of the at the start of this article).

Currently classed as “apparently secure” (one step down from secure) , this is the subspecies that was reintroduced into Yellowstone, and has since spread to the surrounding region. Many would argue that this is the largest subspecies of wolf in the world. Unfortunately this is another subspecies, where accurate population estimates are not forthcoming.

This suggested subspecies has been in recent times, lifted to its own species status – as such I have listed it in its own species status. You can find this species on the canine page, but to look at its page now, click here

It needs to be remembered, that the red wolf is its own species (with its own subspecies). It is a close relation of the grey wolf. Click here to jump to the red wolf page

Why are wolves so fascinating?

  • Is it just their incredible level of intelligence?
  • Their incredible attachment to each other, and the care that they show, in feeding the young, as well as the old and frail.
  • Might it be a throw-back to the time when wolves were a great threat to livestock in the last few millennia
  • Might instead, it be a greater throwback to the time when wolves and humans hunted together – a likely way that wolves started to become the domestic dogs, that we share our houses with.
  • Or perhaps, it is simply the spine-tingling thrill to have an encounter with an animal that makes the whole natural world where it lives, quake by its howls. Whatever, it is, there are a wide range of destinations across a great swarth of the world, looking to spend an evening with a local guide, trying to see them, gives them value. If everyone traveling to wolf areas were to pay to spend one evening during their stay looking at the local wolves, it would likely secure virtually all wolf populations across the world (there would be far more money in eco tourism than in hunting in almost all places – even in old hunting reserves like the Sierra de Culebra, there is far more to be made from eco-tourism than in hunting the 10 wolves a year that the reserve can support.
The only destination that we currently have listed, is the Sweden bear-hide,  but please get in touch – whether you live in an area where wolves live, work in hospitality or wildlife guiding in the same areas, we want to help people find you – As with everything on this site, we take a small cut of income so should we find you no customers, it costs you nothing. Click on list your wild place, to get in touch or to build your page – it is very simple and will only take a few minutes.
 
We are eager to make this work – we want to make it so that living in the shadow of wildlife is capable of making people in these places more than they loose from the animals themselves (predation, threat to life and damage to property)

To jump back to the dog family tree species, click here

Bears should be given more respect as predators

It is often suggested that bears are merely opportunistic when it comes to meat eating. The suggestion is that bears are vegetarians who are capable of scavenging from dead animals.

Now, of course we need to be careful as bears have a wide range of intelligences. Brown bears have an intelligence on par with chimpanzees, where as black bears are far less bright (though they are still one of the brightest animals).

Elk in an open field Marie and Alistair Knock

Continue reading “Bears should be given more respect as predators”

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