This species of mouse deer is an even-toed species. When fully grown, it is only the size of a rabbit, which makes it the smallest ungulate. As its name implies, it is found in the tropical forests of Java, though there have been sightings in Bali (this has not been verified). It is sometimes referred to as the Javan Chevrotain.
It tends to prefer montane rainforest, though it has been identified at lower levels (between 400 and 700m above sea level. Generally, during the day they can be seen roaming through dense undergrowth of creeping bamboo. They create tunnels through this, leading to both resting places, and feeding areas. At night, they go higher up to drier areas. They could be considered ‘edge-species’ as they are often found in dense vegetation right along-side rivers and streams. They also appear to prefer logged areas, with densities decreasing as the forest recovers.
Due to their preference for high montane areas, there habitat is pretty patchy. But are found in most suitable parts of Java – whether they are also found on Bali is yet to be assertained.