All penguin species are found in the southern hemisphere. Those birds which lived around the north pole had to retain their ability to fly due to the polar bear (among other predators). However, the Antarctica is a vast island that is a long way from other land. As a result there are no land based predators.
While they are thought of as Antarctic species, they are found in a wide variety of places, and it is thought that the first penguin lived on New Zealand – another island which before humans arrived, was devoid of land predators, removing the need for birds to fly. In the tens of millions of years that have passed since then, penguins have become more varied, and while none have returned to the air (and all have similar shapes) they have become highly successful in a variety of different places on earth. There is one exception, which does not live in the Southern hemisphere, but has instead lives in the Galapagos islands
Below, I will include images of all species of penguin, and over time each will have a page added.
There are 18 species, spread across 6 genera, so I will include both the name and genera for each one. Photo credits will be made on each species page