Found in fresh water, across India and as far away as Iran, as well as small parts of its range extending into various neighbouring countries including Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka.
As to be expected, its closest relations are the other Asiatic and Australasian Crocodile species.
Its greatest threat is habitat loss and is listed as CITES appendix i. In 2013 the wild population was estimated at 8700, with no single population being over 1000. Between 1970 and 1990 over 1000 were bred in captivity and released into 28 protected areas, however this program was shut down by the government.